The main trading market destination was the German city of Leipzig. Between the 16th and 18th centuries, Russians began to settle in Siberiaa region rich in many mammal fur species, such as Arctic foxlynxsablesea otter and stoat ermine. In a search for the comercianții din comerț sea otter pelts, first used in China, and later for the northern fur sealthe Russian Empire expanded into North America, notably Alaska.
From the 17th through the second half of the 19th century, Russia was the world's largest supplier of fur.
The fur trade played a vital role in the development of Siberiathe Russian Far East and the Russian colonization of the Americas. As recognition of the importance of the trade to the Siberian economy, the sable is a regional symbol of the Ural Sverdlovsk Oblast and the Siberian NovosibirskTyumen and Irkutsk Oblasts of Russia.
Fur was relied on to make warm clothing, a critical consideration prior to the organization of coal distribution for heating.
Portugal and Spain played major roles in fur trading after the 15th century with their business in fur hats. They began by establishing trading posts along the Volga and Vychegda river networks and requiring the Komi people to give them furs as tribute.
Novgorod, the chief fur-trade center prospered as the easternmost trading post of the Hanseatic League. Novgorodians expanded farther east and north, coming into contact with the Pechora people of the Pechora River valley and the Yugra people residing near the Urals. Both of these native tribes offered more resistance than the Komi, killing many Russian tribute-collectors throughout the tenth and eleventh centuries.
During the 15th century Moscow began subjugating many native tribes. One strategy involved exploiting antagonisms between tribes, notably the Komi and Yugra, by recruiting men of one tribe to fight in an army against the other tribe.
Comercianţii sunt acele persoane fizice sau juridice care desfaşoară o activitate comercială consecventă,adică desfaşoară fapte de comerţ cu titlu profesional. În limbaj juridic,prin comerciant se înţelege persoana care efectuează price fel de fapte de comerţ,indiferent de obiectul lor şi nu doar cei care vând sau cumpără.
Campaigns against native tribes in Siberia remained insignificant until they began on a much larger scale in and In Ivan IVthe Tsar of All the Russias, took a significant step towards securing Russian hegemony in Siberia when he sent a comercianții din comerț army to attack the Kazan Tartars and ended up obtaining the territory from the Volga to the Ural Mountains. At this point the phrase "ruler of ObdorKondaand all Siberian lands" became part of the title of the Tsar in Moscow.
The Stroganov family soon came into conflict with the Khan of Sibir whose land they encroached on. Ivan told the Stroganovs to hire Cossack mercenaries to protect the new settlement from the Tatars. From ca the band of Cossacks led by Yermak Timofeyevich fought many battles that eventually culminated in a Tartar victory and the temporary end to Russian occupation in the area. In Ivan's son Fyodor sent military governors voivodas and soldiers to reclaim Yermak conquests and officially to annex the land held by the Khanate of Sibir.
Similar skirmishes with Tartars took place across Siberia as Russian comercianții din comerț continued. As they penetrated deeper into Siberia, traders built outposts or winter lodges called zimovya [ ru ] where they lived and collected fur tribute from native tribes.
By Russia dominated the land from the Urals eastward to the Yenisey valley and to the Altai Mountains in the south, comprising about 1. Keeping up with the advances of Western Europe required significant capital and Russia did not have sources of gold and silver, but it did have furs, which became known as "soft gold" and provided Russia with hard currency.
Fur trading allowed Russia to purchase from Europe goods that it lacked, like lead, tin, precious metals, textiles, firearms, and sulphur. Russia also traded furs with Ottoman Turkey and other countries in the Middle East in exchange for silk, textiles, spices, and dried fruit.
The high prices that sable, black fox, and bitcoin unde poți câștiga furs could generate in international markets spurred a "fur fever" in which many Russians moved to Siberia as independent trappers.
From totens of thousands of sable and other valuable pelts were obtained in Siberia each year. Yasak was usually a fixed number of sable pelts which every male tribe member who was at least fifteen years old had to supply to Russian officials.
Officials enforced yasak through coercion and by taking hostages, usually the tribe chiefs or members of the chief's family.
At first, Russians were content to trade with the natives, exchanging goods like pots, axes, and beads for the prized sables that the natives did not value, but greater demand for furs led to violence and force becoming the primary means of obtaining the furs.
Merchants in antiquity[ edit ] Phoenician trade route map Merchants have existed as long as humans have conducted business, trade or commerce.
The largest problem with the yasak system was that Russian governors were prone to corruption because they received no salary. They resorted to illegal means of getting furs for themselves, including bribing customs officials to allow them to personally collect yasak, extorting natives by exacting yasak multiple times over, or requiring tribute from independent trappers. The first was an independent band of blood relatives or unrelated people who contributed an equal share of the hunting-expedition expenses; the second was a band of hired hunters who participated in expeditions fully funded by the trading companies which employed them.
Comerțul cu mirodenii
Members of an independent vataga cooperated and shared all necessary work associated with fur trapping, including making and setting traps, building forts and camps, stockpiling firewood and grain, and fishing. All fur pelts went into a common pool that the band divided equally among themselves after Russian officials exacted the tithing tax.
On the other hand, a trading company provided hired fur-trappers with the money needed for transportation, food, and supplies, and once the hunt was finished, the employer received two-thirds of the pelts and the remaining ones were sold and the proceeds divided evenly among the hired laborers.
During the summer, promyshlenniki would set up a summer camp to stockpile grain and fish, and many engaged in agricultural pune cumpărător for extra money. During late summer or early fall the vatagi left their hunting grounds, surveyed the area, and set up a winter camp.
Comerciantii - Fondul de Comert
Each member of the group set at least 10 traps and the vatagi divided into smaller groups of 2 to 3 men who cooperated to maintain certain traps. Promyshlenniki checked traps daily, resetting them or replacing bait whenever necessary.
The promyshlenniki employed both passive and active hunting-strategies. The passive approach involved setting traps, while the active approach involved the use of hunting-dogs and of bows-and-arrows.
Occasionally, hunters also followed sable tracks to their burrows, around which they placed nets, and waited for the sable to emerge. Hunting expeditions lasted two to three years on average but occasionally longer. Because of the long hunting season and the fact that passage back to Russia was difficult and costly, beginning around the s—s many promyshlenniki chose to stay and settle in Siberia.
Comercianții din comerț there were European fishing vessels at Newfoundland. Sailors began to trade metal implements particularly knives for the natives' well-worn pelts.
The first pelts in demand were beaver and sea otter, comercianții din comerț well as occasionally deer, bear, ermine and skunk. The pelts were called castor gras in French and "coat beaver" in English, and were soon recognized by the newly developed felt-hat making industry as particularly useful for felting. Some historians, seeking to explain the term castor gras, have assumed that coat beaver was rich in human oils from having been comercianții din comerț so long much of the top-hair was worn away through usage, exposing the valuable under-wooland that this is what made it attractive to the hatters.
This seems unlikely, since grease interferes with the felting of wool, rather than enhancing it.
Hat makers began to use it in England soon after, particularly after Huguenot refugees brought their skills and tastes with them from France. In he acquired a monopoly from Henry IV and tried to establish a colony near the mouth of the Saguenay River at Tadoussac. French explorers, like Samuel de Champlainvoyageursand Coureur des boissuch as Comercianții din comerț BrûléRadissonLa Salleand Le Sueurwhile seeking routes through the continent, established relationships with Amerindians and continued to expand the trade of fur pelts for items considered 'common' by the Europeans.
Mammal winter pelts were prized for warmth, particularly animal pelts for beaver wool felt hats, which were an expensive status symbol in Europe.
The demand for beaver wool felt hats was such that the beaver in Europe comercianții din comerț European Russia had largely disappeared through exploitation. In Dallas Carite and Adriaen Block headed expeditions to establish fur trade relationships with the Mohawk and Mohican. By the Dutch were sending vessels to secure large economic returns from fur trading.
Much of the fur is believed to have originated in Canada, smuggled south by entrepreneurs who wished to avoid the colony's government-imposed monopoly there.
England was slower to enter the American fur trade than France and the Dutch Republic, but as soon as English colonies were established, development companies learned that furs provided the best way for the colonists to remit value back to the mother country.
Furs were being dispatched from Virginia soon afterand the Plymouth Colony was sending substantial amounts of beaver to its London agents through the s and s. London merchants tried to take over France's fur trade in the St Lawrence River valley.
Taking advantage of one of England's war with France, Sir David Kirke captured Quebec in and brought the year's produce of furs back to London. Other English merchants also traded for furs around the Saint Lawrence River region in the s, but these were officially discouraged. Such efforts ceased as France strengthened its presence in Canada. Meanwhile, the New England fur trade expanded, not only inland, but northward along the coast into the Bay of Fundy region.
London's access to high-quality furs was greatly increased with the takeover of New Amsterdam, whereupon the fur trade of that colony now called New York fell into English hands with the Treaty of Breda.
Fur traders in Canada, trading with Native Americans, In the English fur trade entered a new phase.
- Когда Николь с Робертом приступили к исследованиям, чтобы проверить, действительно ли выздоровела Эпонина, оказалось, что Роберт начинает щетиниться, услышав любое благоприятное мнение об Арчи или об октопауках .
- Comerțul cu mirodenii - Wikipedia
Two French citizens, Pierre-Esprit Radisson and Médard des Groseilliershad traded with great success west of Lake Superior in —60, but upon their return to Canada, most of their furs were seized by the authorities.
Their trading voyage had convinced them that the best fur country was far to the north and west, and could best be reached by ships sailing into Hudson Bay. Their treatment in Canada suggested that they would not find support from France for their scheme. The pair went to New England, where they found local financial support for at least two attempts to reach Hudson Bay, both unsuccessful.
Their ideas had reached the ears of English authorities, however, and in Radisson and Groseilliers were persuaded to go to London. After some setbacks, a number of English investors were found to back another attempt for Hudson Bay. Two ships were sent out in One, with Radisson aboard, had to turn back, but the other, the Nonsuchwith Groseilliers, did penetrate the bay.
There she was able to trade with the indigenes, collecting a fine cargo of beaver skins before the expedition returned to London in October The delighted investors sought a royal charter, which they obtained the next year. This charter established the Hudson's Bay Company and granted it a monopoly to trade into all the rivers that emptied into Hudson Bay. From onwards, the Hudson's Bay Company sent two or three trading ships into the bay every year.
They brought back furs mainly beaver and sold them, sometimes by private treaty but usually by public auction. The beaver was bought mainly for the English hat-making trade, while the fine furs went to the Netherlands and Germany.
Meanwhile, in the Southern coloniesa deerskin trade was established aroundbased at the export hub of Charleston, South Carolina. Word spread among Native hunters that the Europeans would exchange pelts for the European-manufactured goods that were highly desired in native communities.
Carolinan traders stocked axe heads, knives, awls, fish hooks, cloth of various type and color, woolen blankets, linen shirts, kettles, jewelry, glass beads, musketsammunition and powder to exchange on a 'per pelt' basis.
Calitatea de comerciant Conditii ce trebuie indeplinite de catre persoana fizica pentru dobandirea calitatii: sa savarseasca anumite fapte de comert obiective prevazute in c. Incetarea trebuie sa fie efectiva si din ea trebuie sa rezulte intentia de a renunta la calitatea de comerciant. Nu sunt comercianti meseriasii persoane care, pe baza cunostintelor dobandite prin scolarizare sau practica executa anumite operatiuni de prelucrare si transformare a obiectelor muncii sau presteaza anumite servicii ei nu au obligatia de a se inmatricula in Registrul Comertului persoanele care exercita profesiuni liberale activitate exercitata in mod independent, constand in punerea la dispozitia celor interesati a cunostintelor si competentei proprii, in schimbul careia persoanele respective primesc onorarii agricultorii nu sunt considerate fapte de comert vanzarile produselor pe care proprietarul sau cultivatorul le are de pe pamantul sau ori pe care l-a cultivat.
Colonial trading posts in the southern colonies also introduced many types of comercianții din comerț especially brandy and rum for trade. A metal axe head, for example, was exchanged for one beaver pelt also called a 'beaver blanket'. The same pelt could fetch enough to buy dozens of axe heads in England, making the fur trade extremely profitable for the Europeans. The Natives used the iron axe heads to replace stone axe heads which they had made by hand in a labor-intensive process, so they derived substantial benefits from the trade as well.
The colonists began to see the ill effects of alcohol on Natives, and the chiefs objected to its sale and trade. Socioeconomic ties This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. June Fur trading at Fort Nez Percé in Often, the political benefits of the fur trade became more important than the economic aspects.
- Origini[ modificare modificare sursă ] Comerțul cu mirodenii din India a atras atenția dinastiei Ptolemeice și, ulterior, a Imperiului Roman.
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- Fur trade - Wikipedia
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- Октопаук опустился на пол среди людей.
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